Who Invented Peanut Butter?
- 1 Where is peanut butter originally from?
- 2 How old is peanut butter?
- 3 Who invented peanut milk?
- 4 How healthy is peanut butter?
- 5 Why is it called peanut butter?
- 6 Who loves peanut butter?
- 7 Can I eating 100g peanuts a day?
- 8 Is peanut butter OK everyday?
- 9 Is peanut butter a protein or fat?
- 10 Who was the famous black peanut farmer?
- 11 Who was the famous black botanist?
- 12 Who is Dr Carver in black history?
Is the person who invented peanut butter black?
Did George Washington Carver Invent Peanut Butter? Getty Images created more than 300 products from the peanut plant but is often remembered for the one he didn’t invent: peanut butter. The agricultural scientist is often given credit for “discovering” something that was already there. Still, his story fits nicely alongside the rise of peanut butter as a culinary favorite in the first decades of the 20th century, making him an appropriate symbol for this distinctly American specialty.
Where is peanut butter originally from?
Who invented peanut butter? – There is evidence that ancient South American Incas were the first to grind peanuts to make peanut butter. In the U.S., Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (of cereal fame) invented a version of peanut butter in 1895. Then it is believed that a St.
Louis physician may have developed a version of peanut butter as a protein substitute for his older patients who had poor teeth and couldn’t chew meat. Peanut butter was first introduced at the St. Louis World’s Fair in 1904. Peanuts and peanut butter became an integral part of the Armed Forces rations in World Wars I and II.
It is believed that the U.S. army popularized the peanut butter and jelly sandwich for sustenance during maneuvers in World War II.
How old is peanut butter?
Peanut butter was first made by a man named John Harvey Kellogg in 1895. He developed it for those who were older and needed nutrients through food such as protein but couldn’t chew meat. Peanut butter made it’s very first appearance publicly sold in 1904 at the St.
Who invented peanut milk?
Invention – George Washington Carver, a well known botanist, scientist, conversationalist and professor in the early 1900s, was most likely to have been the modern inventor of peanut milk. With a fond curiosity and great skill in chemistry and physics, George was known for his valuable research on the peanut.
Is peanut butter only an American thing?
Reason 2: It Grew Up in America – Image from WikiCommons The invention of peanut butter takes place almost entirely in America. Canadian Marcellus Gilmore Edson patented his peanut paste in 1884, and its evolution then migrated to (and stayed in) America all the way until Joseph Rosefield patented his recipe in 1928, creating what would become Skippy.
How healthy is peanut butter?
Peanut butter is loaded with so many good, health-promoting nutrients, including vitamin E, magnesium, iron, selenium and vitamin B6. Research shows that people who regularly eat nuts and nut butter, including peanut butter, are less likely to develop heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Is peanut butter Vegan?
Most peanut butter is, indeed, vegan – In fact, most types of peanut butter in your local supermarket will be made from a few simple ingredients – roasted peanuts, oils, and salt. Some brands may decide to include other additives and ingredients in order to enhance the flavour or preserve the product for longer, and this can include molasses, sugar, or agave syrup – all of which are luckily vegan.
Meridian Whole EarthSun-PatPip & NutManilife
Please be aware that this is not an exhaustive list of all the brands of vegan peanut butter available in your local supermarket – many own brands and other brands not listed here are indeed vegan, just make sure to check the label!
Who ate the most peanut butter?
Famous record-breaker Andre Ortolf ate almost an entire jar’s worth of peanut butter in 1 minute. – The jar of peanut butter Ortolf ate not pictured. Shutterstock Andre Ortolf, known for being a bit of a record-breaking pro, consumed 378 grams of thick, gooey peanut butter in 1 minute. Ortolf holds other food-related records, too, including ones related to drinking mustard, eating mashed potatoes, and many more.
Why is it called peanut butter?
Peanut butter got its start a long time ago – November is National Peanut Butter Lovers Month. Are you a fan? If your kids are, research shows they will eat 1,500 peanut butter and jelly sandwiches before they graduate high school. In fact, people eat so much peanut butter each year, a line of 18-ounce jars would wrap around the Earth one and a third times.
- The history of peanut butter begins with, of course, peanuts, which are not nuts, but legumes, like peas and beans.
- It got its name because of the hard, nut-like shell and pea-like appearance.
- Peanuts originated in Bolivia and grew in the countries of Peru and Brazil, as well as on islands in the Caribbean.
Spanish and Portuguese explorers took them to Europe, Asia and Africa. Peanuts were eaten by slaves on the ships that brought them to North America. They planted them in their small gardens around their quarters. Most of the time, peanuts were used as food for pigs, cows and other livestock, but the slaves also ate peanuts raw, roasted or boiled.
Slaves were often the household cooks for plantation owners, and they added peanuts to meals. That made peanuts a popular food ingredient throughout the southern United States. During the Civil War, peanuts were consumed to prevent starvation. Union soldiers brought them home to the North after the war, where they became a popular snack food.
The first person to make peanut butter popular was John Harvey Kellogg. He was a vegetarian, and in the early 1890s, he invented a way to crush nuts between two rollers to make nut butters as a substitute for cow’s butter and cream. Kellogg was the director of a sanitarium in Battle Creek, Mich., and gave his peanut butter to some of the rich patients there.
- Officially, peanut butter was introduced to the public at the 1904 World’s Fair in St.
- Louis, Mo., by a man named C.H. Sumner.
- He sold $705.11 worth of peanut butter at his stand.
- In the early 1900s, peanut butter was considered a fancy ingredient.
- It was served at elegant dinners, andin tearooms and restaurants.
Peanut butter sandwiches were also popular by 1900. People would make them with all kinds of ingredients inside, including: jelly, raisins, marmalade, cheese, cucumbers, grapefruit, celery, apricots, dates, bananas and bacon. As more companies began making peanut butter, it became less and less fancy.
- With the invention by Gustav Papendick of a machine that could slice and package bread in the 1920s, peanut butter sandwiches became a hit with kids since they could then make their own without using a sharp knife.
- Celebrate Peanut Butter Lovers Month with your kids by making your own.
- Just wiz-up the ingredients in a food processor and the kids will be amazed.
Then you can use the peanut butter to make kid-friendly granola bars.
Is A peanut a nut?
What Is a Peanut Allergy? – When someone has a peanut allergy, the body’s immune system, which normally fights infections, overreacts to proteins in peanuts. If the person drinks or eats a product that contains peanuts, the body thinks these proteins are harmful invaders.
- The immune system responds by working very hard to fight off the invader.
- This causes an allergic reaction,
- Peanuts aren’t actually a true nut; they’re a legume (in the same family as peas and lentils).
- Peanuts are among the most common allergy-causing foods, and they often find their way into things you wouldn’t expect.
Take chili, for example: It may be thickened with ground peanuts. Sometimes people outgrow some food allergies over time, but peanut allergies are lifelong in many people.
Can I eat peanut butter at night?
Peanut butter has many nutritional benefits. Eating a small amount of peanut butter as part of a healthy snack before bed may help improve sleep quality and prevent overeating and weight gain the following day. Peanut butter is a nutrient-dense, high-calorie food containing vitamins, minerals, protein, and fiber.
Eating a small amount of peanut butter before bed may improve the quality of sleep. For maximum health benefits, a person should choose a natural peanut butter that lists only peanuts in the ingredients. This article explores the nutritional value of peanut butter and how it may help sleep. It also looks at why sleep is important, how a lack of it can affect overall health, and the advantages and disadvantages of late-night snacking.
The nutritional content of peanuts may provide health benefits when a person consumes it in moderate quantities. Peanuts are full of nutrients, Ounce for ounce, peanuts contain more protein than any other nut, at 7 grams per ounce (oz), They also contain:
fiber antioxidantsvitamins and mineralsamino acids
Peanut protein is a plant-based protein, and health experts encourage people to eat more of this food. Other health professionals say that 1 tablespoon of peanut butter is equivalent to 1 oz of lean meat. Additionally, not eating enough protein can interfere with a person’s sleep,
A 2021 study stated that improved sleep quality had associations with a higher protein intake, especially in combination with regular exercise. Peanuts have a high fat content, but it mostly consists of monounsaturated fat, a type of fat that offers health benefits, In combination with the protein and fiber that peanut butter contains, these fats can make someone feel fuller for longer, stabilize blood sugar levels, and help them sleep,
Peanuts are also high in calories : 1 tablespoon of peanuts contains around 90 calories. However, a person should limit their serving size if they are not actively trying to gain weight, Combining a small amount of peanut butter with an apple provides a healthy and filling snack that consists of plenty of protein, fiber, and fat,
- The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that all peanut butter must contain at least 90% peanuts in the final product.
- According to recommendations from health experts, choosing peanut butter comprising only peanuts means there are no added sugars or fats.
- Additionally, a peanut butter that consists of unblanched peanuts — with their skins still on — has been shown to contain higher levels of fiber and antioxidants,
Peanuts also contain significant amounts of antioxidants, amino acids, and vitamins. People lacking these micronutrients, particularly vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, may experience difficulties sleeping. Peanut butter also provides many micronutrients and is a good source of vitamin E.
Additionally, it contains the amino acid tryptophan, which the body needs to make serotonin and melatonin, Both melatonin and serotonin help regulate the sleep-wake cycle and promote quality sleep, Late-night snacking can lead to weight gain, and studies highlight a link between diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
A 2019 study suggests this may be because people tend to choose higher calorie foods in the evening. During sleep, the metabolism slows down and foods take longer to digest. Many people also tend to overeat in the evenings, especially if they become distracted.
- Psychological or emotional needs may also influence individual nighttime eating behaviors.
- Mindful eating — paying attention to the food and what they are eating — may reduce overeating.
- Portion size is also important.
- As a general rule, snacks should not have more than 250 calories and count towards a person’s daily total of calories.
Daily caloric needs vary depending on activity and age, but most adult females need 1,600–2,200 per day, while adult males need 2,000–3,200. As part of a balanced diet, a small serving of peanut butter can be a nutritious choice for a nighttime snack.
- Combining this with a piece of fruit, such as an apple or banana, or vegetables, such as celery, increases the fiber content and nutritional value of the snack.
- Some research shows that eating a healthy snack close to bedtime can help promote restful sleep and regulate a person’s appetite, helping them maintain a moderate calorie consumption the next day.
People should also aim to practice mindful eating and not become distracted while eating in the evenings to help them consume proper portion sizes and feel fuller in the hours before bedtime.
Can you drink peanut milk?
By Dina Cheney, Author of The New Milks: 100-Plus Dairy-Free Recipes for Making and Cooking with Soy, Nut, Seed, Grain, and Coconut Milks (Atria/Simon & Schuster) and Creator of the Dairy-Free Resource Site, www.thenewmilks.com If you love peanuts, you’ll appreciate yet another way to enjoy them: peanut milk ! With eight grams of protein per cup (about the same amount as in dairy milk), peanut milk is nutritious and satisfying! The magnesium- and potassium-rich drink is also vegan, kosher, and dairy-, cholesterol-, hormone-, and lactose-free.
Peanut milk is delicious plain; alongside PB&J sandwiches; or with desserts featuring peanut butter or chocolate, such as peanut butter or chocolate chip cookies, brownies, or date nut bread. Or, try incorporating it into peanut soup, or sipping it with a dairy-free yogurt and peanut granola parfait.
Since peanut milk is not yet available in stores, make it yourself. The process is incredibly simple! Plus, by making your own peanut milk, you will also yield fiber-rich peanut flour, which you can use in baked goods, such as cookies and crackers. Try substituting one-quarter of the traditional flour in a recipe with the peanut flour.
Who first used milk?
Historical Timeline – Milk – ProCon.org
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8000 BC – Origins of the Domestic Cow Aurochs, the wild ancestors of modern cows, once ranged over large areas of Asia, Europe and North Africa. Aurochs were first domesticated 8,000 to 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent area of the Near East and evolved into two types of domestic cattle, the humped Zebu (Bos indicus) and the humpless European Highland cattle (Bos taurus).
Some scientists believe that domesticated cattle from the Fertile Crescent spread throughout Eurasia, while others believe that a separate domestication event took place in the area of India and Pakistan. “History of the Cow,” www.strausfamilycreamery.com (accessed Oct.23, 2007) 4000 BC – Early Evidence of Milking Cattle in Neolithic Britian Through analyzing degraded fats on unearthed potshards, scientists have discovered that Neolithic farmers in Britain and Northern Europe may have been among the first to begin milking cattle for human consumption.
The dairying activities of these European farmers may have begun as early as 6,000 years ago. According to scientists, the ability to digest milk was slowly gained some time between 5000-4000 B.C.E. by the spread of a genetic mutation called lactase persistance that allowed post-weaned humans to continue to digest milk.
If that date is correct, it may pre-date the rise of other major dairying civilizations in the Near East, India, and North Africa. “Early Brits Were Original Cheeseheads,” dsc.discovery.com, Oct.10, 2006 “Early Man ‘Couldn’t Stomach Milk’,” www.bbc.co.uk (accessed Oct.30, 2007) 3000 BC – Evidence of Dairy Cows Playing a Major Role in Ancient Sumerian Civilization Although there is evidence of cattle domestication in Mesopotamia as early as 8000 B.C.E., the milking of dairy cows did not become a major part of Sumerian civilization until approximately 3000 B.C.E.
Archaelogical evidence shows that the Ancient Sumerians drank cow’s milk and also made cow’s milk into cheeses and butters. The picture to the left is of a carved dairy scene found in the temple of Ninhursag in the Sumerian city of Tell al-Ubaid. The scene, which shows typical dairy activities such as milking, straining and making butter, dates to the first half of the third millennium B.C.E.
- Daily Life In Ancient Mesopotamia, 2002 3100 BC – The Domesticated Cow Appears in Ancient Egyptian Civilization At least as early as 3100 B.C.E., the domesticated cow had been introduced to, or had been separately domesticated in, Northern Africa.
- In Ancient Egypt, the domesticated cow played a major role in Egyptian agriculture and spirituality.
Attesting to its central role in Egyptian life, the cow was deified. The Egyptians “held the cow sacred and dedicated her to Isis, goddess of agriculture; but more than that, the cow was a goddess in her own right, named Hathor, who guarded the fertility of the land.” The Untold Story of Milk, 2003 2000 BC – The Domesticated Cow Appears in Northern Indian Vedic Civilization By 2000 B.C.E, the domesticated cow had appeared in Northern India, coinciding with the arrival of the Aryan nomads.
The Vedic civilization that ruled Northern India from about 1750 BCE to about 500 BCE relied heavily upon the cow and the dairy products that it provided. The heavy dependence on the cow was reinforced by the Vedas (the religious epics of the Hindu religion) wherein the cow was considered a sacred animal.1700-63 BC – Milk in Ancient Hebrew Civilization and the Bible “The ancient Hebrews.
held milk in high favor; the earliest Hebrew scriptures contain abundant evidence of the widespread use of milk from very early times. The Old Testament refers to a ‘land which floweth with milk and honey’ some twenty times. The phrase describes Palestine as a land of extraordinary fertility, providing all the comforts and necessities of life.
- In all, the Bible contains some fifty references to milk and milk products.” The Untold Story of Milk, 2003 1525 – The First Cattle Brought to the Americas Arrive at Vera Cruz, Mexico “The first cattle to arrive in the New World landed in Vera Cruz, Mexico, in 1525.
- Soon afterword, some made their way across the Rio Grande to proliferate in the wild.
They became known as ‘Texas Cattle.’ Soon after, some of the settlers transported cattle to South America from the Canary Islands and Europe. More followed, and cattle multiplied rapidly throughout New Spain, numbering in the thousands within a few years.” The Untold Story of Milk, 2003 1624 – The First Cattle Brought to New England Arrive at Plymouth Colony The first cows were brought to Plymouth colony in 1624.
“The cattle present in 1627 in Plymouth included black, red, white-backed and white-bellied varieties. The black cattle may have been of a breed or similar to those today called Kerrys. Kerry cattle are descended from ancient Celtic cattle and were originally native to County Kerry Ireland.” “Livestock in Plymouth Colony,” Plymouth Archaeological Rediscovery Project website (accessed Oct.9, 2007) 1679-1776 – Milk and the Spanish California Missions “The Jesuit Priest, Eusebio Kino, introduced cattle to Baja California in 1679 as part of the missionary effort to establish mission settlements.
Milk became a blessing to missionaries in time of need.” During a food shortage in 1772, Junipero Serra stated that “.milk from the cows and some vegetables from the garden have been chief subsistence.” In 1776, at the Mission San Gabriel, Father Font wrote that “The cows are very fat and they give much and rich milk, which they make cheese and very good butter.” “Dairying in California through 1910,” Southern California Quarterly, Summer 1994 Early 1800s – Milk Maids and the Compulsory Smallpox Vaccine in the United States In the 18th century it was common folk knowledge in Europe that milk maids (women who milked cows) seemed to be immune from the smallpox plagues when they swept through Europe.
In 1796, English physician Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for smallpox based upon this folk knowledge. “Recognizing that dairymaids infected with cowpox were immune to small-pox, Jenner deliberately infected James Phipps, an eight year old boy, with cowpox in 1796. He then exposed Phipps to smallpox-which Phipps failed to contract.
After repeating the experiment on other children, including his own son, Jenner concluded that vaccination provided immunity to smallpox.” In the United States, compulsory smallpox vaccination was introduced on a state by state basis, beginning in the early 1800s.
- Smallpox A Great and Terrible Scourge,” nlm.nih.gov, Oct.18, 2002 1840-1920s – Milk Production and Distillery Dairies in the United States In the early 19th century, the alcohol distillery business in the United States began to grow.
- Large amounts of swill (spent-grains) were produced as a byproduct of whisky and other alcohol production.
Many distilleries opened dairies and began feeding their dairy cows with the waste swill. The low nutritional content of the swill lead to sickness in the cows and in the humans who drank their milk. “Confined to filthy, manure-filled pens, the unfortunate cows gave a pale, bluish milk so poor in quality, it couldn’t even be used for making butter or cheese.” “Distellery Dairies, Deadly Milk,” raw-milk-facts.com, June 21, 2012 1822-1895 – The Process of Pasteurization is Developed by Louis Pasteur French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur, considered one of the fathers of microbiology, helped prove that infectious diseases and food-borne illnesses were caused by germs, known as the “germ theory.” Pasteur’s research demonstrated that harmful microbes in milk and wine caused sickness, and he invented a process – now called “pasteurization” – whereby the liquids were rapidly heated and cooled to kill most of the organisms.
- Louis Pasteur (1822-1895),” bbc.co.uk (accessed July 11, 2013) Mar.23, 1883 – The New York Milk War In 1883 a struggle known as the “milk war” broke out between milk farmers/producers and milk distribution companies in New-York.
- Milk farmers demanded a higher price for their milk.
- When the distribution companies refused to pay more the farmers organized “spilling committees” that blocked roads, seized shipments and dumped out their own milk instead of selling it to the distributors.
These “spilling committees” created a “milk famine” in New York City in an effort to force the milk distribution companies to pay the farmers higher prices for their milk. “In late March, 1883, a temporary settlement was reached between committees of the striking dairy farmers and the milk retailers, the latter representing about 800 of their fellow businessmen.
- They agreed to set the price of milk at 2½-4¢ a quart, depending on the season.
- Disputes between milk producers and dealers would resurface at times over the years, the most notable of which were the milk strikes of the early 1930s during the Great Depression.” “On This Day: March 31, 1883,” nytimes.com (accessed July 11, 2013) 1884 – First Glass Milk Bottles Patented “One of the first glass milk bottles was patented in 1884 by Dr.
Henry Thatcher, after seeing a milkman making deliveries from an open bucket into which a child’s filthy rag doll had accidentally fallen. By 1889, his Thatcher’s Common Sense Milk Jar had become an industry standard. It was sealed with a waxed paper disc that was pressed into a groove inside the bottle’s neck.
- The milk bottle, and the regular morning arrival of the milkman, remained a part of American life until the 1950s, when waxed paper cartons of milk began appearing in markets.” “Milk,” www.madehow.com (accessed Oct.22, 2007) 1893 – Dr. Henry L.
- Coit Forms the Medical Milk Commission to Certify Raw Milk In the mid-to-late 1800s milk-born illness was a major problem.
Milk produced at unhygienic production facilities (like distillery dairies) served as a medium to spread diseases like typhoid and tuberculosis. These diseases created a public health crisis that led to skyrocketing infant mortality in the cities. As a result, “n 1889, two years before the death of his son from contaminated milk, Newark, New Jersey doctor Henry Coit, MD urged the creation of a Medical Milk Commission to oversee or ‘certify’ production of milk for cleanliness, finally getting one formed in 1893.” “A Brief History of Raw Milk,” raw-milk.facts.com (accessed July 11, 2013) 1895 – Commercial Pasteurization of Milk Begins In 1895, commercial pasteurizing machines for milk were introduced in the United States.
- Important Dates in Milk History,” www.idfa.org (accessed Oct.8, 2007) 1899 – Milk Homogenizer Is Patented “In 1899 Auguste Gaulin obtained a patent on his homogenizer.
- The patent consisted of a 3 piston pump in which product was forced through one or more hair like tubes under pressure.” Homogenization breaks down the large fat globules in milk into tiny ones.
The process prevents the cream from separating and rising to the top as it does in un-homogenized milk. “History,” www.dairyheritage.com (accessed Oct.8, 2007) 1913 – Typhoid Epidemic in New York City The New York Times reported that a large typhoid epidemic in New York City was attributed to contaminated milk.
Bad Milk Causes Typhoid,” Sep.19, 1913 1914 – The First Milk Tanker Trucks Are Introduced The first tank trucks for transporting milk were put into service. “Important Dates in Milk History,” www.idfa.org (accessed Oct.8, 2007) 1917 – Mandatory Pasteurization of Milk Begins “By 1917, pasteurization of all milk except that from cows proven to be free of tuberculosis was either required or officially encouraged in 46 of the country’s 52 largest cities.
The proportion of milk pasteurized in these cities ranged from 10 percent to 97 percent; in most it was well over 50 percent.” The Untold Story of Milk, 2003 1922 – Capper-Volstead Act Passed Congress passed the Capper-Volstead Act, allowing producers of agricultural products, such as milk, to “act together in associations” to organize collective processing, preparation for market, handling, and marketing of milk and other agricultural goods.
- The act was of historic significance as it granted producers of milk and other agricultural products special exemptions from monopoly laws to help farmers raise the price for their products.
- Capper-Volstead Act, Feb.18, 1922 1933 – Sioux City Milk War In 1933 milk producers in Iowa organize a strike for higher milk prices.
One of the main tactics farmers used during the strike was to block roads and prevent milk from being shipped to Sioux City. In one instance, strikers opened fire on a truck driver who was trying to get past a road blockade they had set up, seriously injuring four of the passengers.
- 4 Shot in Milk War on Sioux City Road,” Feb.4, 1933 1937 – First Milk Marketing Orders Initiated “Milk marketing orders came into existence as a result of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937.
- The rationale for the legislation was to reduce disorderly marketing conditions, improve price stability in fluid milk markets, and ensure a sufficient quantity of pure and wholesome milk.
The orders are regulations approved by dairy farmers in individual fluid milk markets that require manufacturers to pay minimum monthly prices for milk purchases.” “Milk Marketing Order Reform: Watered Down or Real?,” Jan.20, 1998 Aug.28, 1939 – Dairy Farmers Union Strike Dairy farmers in the countryside outside New York City were hit hard by the Great Depression.
Milk prices in New York City fell so low that the milk distributors were paying farmers less for their milk than it cost them to produce it. As things got desperate, dairy farmers organized the Dairy Farmers Union (DFU). Led by Archie Wright, a former organizer for the radical Industrial Workers of the World, the DFU went on strike in 1939.
During the strike, DFU members blocked roads and halted market-bound trucks. They confiscated milk and spilled it out on the roadsides. In some cases they threw bottles of kerosene on trucks that did not stop. The picketers fought non-strikers who tried to cross their lines, and State troopers who intervened.
- Milk Without Honey,” time.com, Aug.28, 1939 June 4, 1940 – First Federal Milk Program for Schools “Federal assistance in providing milk for school children has been in operation since June 4, 1940, when a federally subsidized program was begun in Chicago.
- It was limited to 15 elementary schools with a total enrollment of 13,256 children.
The schools selected were located in low-income areas of the city. The price to the children was 1 cent per one-half pint, and children who could not pay were given milk free, the cost being paid through donations by interested persons.” “The National School Lunch Program Background and Development,” usda.gov (accessed Oct.17, 2007) 1940s – Federally Subsidized Milk Advertising under the Works Progress Administration The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was formed on May 6, 1935, as a part of President Franklin D.
- Roosevelt’s New Deal plan to bring the United States out of the Great Depression.
- The WPA differed from other New Deal programs in that it focused on providing work for artists, educators, writers and musicians.
- The two posters pictured here were painted by artists under commission from the WPA.
- Like many WPA projects, these paintings served a dual purpose: to employ artists and to create increased demand for milk.
As such, these paintings (and many others like them) were a form of federally subsidized dairy advertising. At its height, the WPA employed over 3 million people. “A Brief Overview of the WPA,” www.broward.org (accessed Oct.16, 2007) 1946 – National School Lunch Act Passed In 1946, President Harry Truman signed the National School Lunch Act into law.
- The act was designed to provide nutritious lunches to the nation’s children.
- The reasoning behind the act was laid out in its text: “It is hereby declared to be the policy of Congress, as a measure of national security, to safeguard the health and well-being of the Nation’s children and to encourage the domestic consumption of nutritious agricultural commodities and other food, by assisting the States, through grants-in aid and other means, in providing an adequate supply of food and other facilities for the establishment, maintenance, operation and expansion of nonprofit school lunch programs.” The Secretary of Agriculture prescribed three types of lunches which would be acceptable under the act, designed as Type A, Type B, and Type C.
It was mandated that each lunch include between 1/2 to 2 pints of whole milk. “The National School Lunch Program Background and Development,” www.usda.com (accessed Oct.17, 2007) 1950s-1960s – Square Milk Carton Introduced In the 1950s and 1960s many dairies began to introduce the square paper carton to replace bottles.
- The square shape allowed more milk to be carried and displayed in a given space than did the old glass bottles.
- The new cartons also reduced the cost of milk for consumers since disposable paper cartons were cheaper than glass bottles.
- Wax Milk Containers,” dairyantiques.com (accessed Oct.10, 2007) Oct.11, 1966 – Child Nutrition Act of 1966 and the Special Milk Program The Child Nutrition Act of 1966, signed into law by President Lyndon B.
Johnson, authorized the Special Milk Program (SMP). “The SMP provides milk free of charge or at a low cost to children in schools and child care institutions that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The federally assisted program reimburses schools for the milk they serve.” “Program History & Data,” www.schoolnutrition.org (accessed Oct.17, 2007) 1974 – Nutrition Labeling of Fluid Milk Begins Voluntary nutrition labeling on fluid milk products was initiated after the FDA advised that all foods should have nutrition labels.
“Important Dates in Milk History,” www.idfa.org (accessed Oct.8, 2007) 1983 – Dairy Act of 1983 and the Creation of the National Dairy Board “The Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983 (Dairy Act) authorized a national producer program for dairy product promotion, research, and nutrition education to increase human consumption of milk and dairy products and reduce milk surpluses.
This self-help program is funded by a mandatory 15-cent-per-hundredweight assessment on all milk produced in the contiguous 48 States and marketed commercially by dairy farmers. It is administered by the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (Dairy Board).
The Dairy Act provides that dairy farmers can direct up to 10 cents per hundredweight of the assessment for contributions to qualified regional, State, or local dairy product promotion, research, or nutrition education programs.” “National Dairy Promotion & Research Program: Overview, Structure, and History,” usda.gov (accessed Oct.16, 2007) 1990 – Fluid Milk Promotion Act In 1990, the U.S.
Congress passed the Fluid Milk Promotion Act to promote the sale of milk and to allow collective, producer financed, generic milk advertising. The act stated that “fluid milk products are basic foods and are a primary source of required nutrients such as calcium, and otherwise are a valuable part of the human diet,” and mandated that “fluid milk products must be readily available and marketed efficiently to ensure that the people of the United States receive adequate nourishment.” 1990 Fluid Milk Promotion Act 1992 – First USDA Food Pyramid Is Released “The Food Guide Pyramid was introduced in 1992 to illustrate a food guide developed by the U.S.
- Department of Agriculture (USDA) to help healthy Americans use the Dietary Guidelines to choose foods for a healthy diet.
- The Food Guide Pyramid is a graphic tool that conveys ‘at a glance’ important dietary guidance concepts of variety, proportion, and moderation.
- These concepts are not new—with varying emphasis, they have been part of USDA food guides for almost 100 years.” The 1992 Food Pyramid recommended that 2-3 servings of milk and other dairy products be consumed daily.
“Using The Food Guide Pyramid: A Resource for Nutrition Educators,” usda.gov, 1992 1993 – “Got Milk?” Advertising Campaign Launched In 1993, the California Milk Processor Board was formed to increase milk consumption. Their first major public success was the creation of the “Got Milk?” advertisement campaign.
In 1995, the “Got Milk?” slogan was registered as a federal trademark by the National Dairy Boards and the “Got Milk?” campaign went national. “Awareness of GOT MILK? is over 90% nationally and it is considered one of the most important and successful campaigns in history The Dairy industry spends $150-million annually to support GOT MILK?, including use on those Milk Mustache ads.
In addition, the ‘brand’ has become a hot property with over 100 product licensees.” “About the CMPB,” www.gotmilk.com (accessed Oct.16, 2007) Nov.5, 1993 – Artificial Bovine Growth Hormone Approved by FDA On November 5, 1993, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved genetically engineered Artificial Bovine Growth Hormone (rBST, rBGH, BGH) for commercial use in the United States.
- In March 1993, before rbST was approved, an FDA advisory committee concluded that the use of rbST – and any increased risk of mastitis and resulting increased use of antibiotics in treated cattle – would not pose a risk to human health.
- Monsanto Co.’s Posilac, the only rbST product approved for increasing milk production in dairy cattle, was first marketed in February 1994.” “BST Update: First Year Experience Reports,” fda.gov, Mar.14, 1995 1994 – Protests against Artificial Bovine Growth Hormone Ensue In response to the FDA approval of Artificial Bovine Growth Hormone (rBST, rBGH, BGH), the Pure Food Campaign launched a series of protests around the country where milk was spilled in symbolic protest.
Jeremy Rifkin, an organizer of the Pure Food Campaign, stated that there was widespread public concern over the safety of rBST and that “We believe this product is a hazard to health.” “Grocers Challenge Use of New Drug for Milk Output,” nytimes.com, Feb.4, 1994 1994 – FDA Issues rBST Labeling Guidelines In 1994, the FDA issued labeling guidelines for milk (and dairy products made with milk) produced by cows that have not been treated with rBST.
In its guidelines the FDA stated: “Because of the presence of natural bST in milk, no milk is ‘bST-free,’ and a ‘bST-free’ labeling statement would be false.” The FDA advised that the following statement should be included on all products labeled as being made with milk from cows that are not treated with rBST: “No significant difference has been shown between milk derived from rbST-treated and non-rbST-treated cows.” FDA, “Food and Drug Administration Interim Guidance on the Voluntary Labeling of Milk and Milk Products From Cows That Have Not Been Treated with Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin,” fda.gov, Feb.10, 1994 1995 – Dairy Management, Inc.
(DMI) Formed “Dairy producer board members of the National Dairy Board (NDB) and the United Dairy Industry Association (UDIA) create Dairy Management Inc.™ (DMI) as the organization responsible for increasing demand for U.S.-produced dairy products on behalf of America’s dairy producers; direct coordination between national and local dairy promotion programs begins.
- DMI forms the U.S.
- Dairy Export Council® (USDEC) to leverage investments of dairy processors, exporters, dairy producers, and industry suppliers to enhance the U.S.
- Dairy industry’s ability to serve international markets.
- Both dairy checkoff dollars and USDEC membership dues fund the organization.” “History of Dairy Promotion,” www.dairycheckoff.com (accessed Oct.16, 2007) 1995 – “Got Milk?” Barbie Released “CMPB and Mattel came out with a limited edition ‘got milk?’ Barbie doll to remind young consumers to drink their milk.
‘ partnership with Mattel is the perfect example of the power of ‘got milk?’ to attract and leverage great brands to sell more milk,’ says Jeff Manning, executive director of the CMPB.” “Delivering ‘Got Milk?’ Message to Kids,” May 1998 1997 – Harvard Study on Milk and Bone Health Released Harvard School of Public Health doctors published a study in the American Journal of Public Health titled “Milk, Dietary Calcium, and Bone Fractures in Women: A 12-Year Prospective Study.” The study investigated whether higher intakes of milk and other high calcium foods during adulthood could reduce the risk of osteoporosis and related bone fractures.
- The study found that high intakes of milk (two or more glasses a day over a 12-year period) did not reduce the incidence of osteoporosis and related bone fractures.
- Milk, Dietary Calcium, and Bone Fractures in Women: A 12-Year Prospective Study,” American Journal of Public Health, June 1997 1998 – National Raw Milk Campaign Initiated In 1998, the Weston A.
Price Foundation initiated the “Real Milk Campaign” to promote the health benefits of raw cow’s milk and to advocate for the legalization of raw milk sales. The goal of the Real Milk Campaign is to make”aw milk available to consumers in all 50 states and throughout the world!” In 2007, the sale of raw cow’s milk for human consumption was illegal in 17 states.
- Real Milk,” westonaprice.org (accessed Oct.22, 2007) Dec.2001 – Merger Forms Largest US Dairy Producer In December 2001, Suiza Foods Corporation acquired Dean Foods Company and formed the “new” Dean Foods Corporation.
- The new Dean Foods Corporation became the nation’s largest dairy processor and distributor with more than 25,000 employees and $10 billion in revenues.
“A Brief History of the New Dean Foods Company,” www.deanfoods.com (accessed Oct.22, 2007) Dec.2002 – PETA Files False Advertising Lawsuit against the California Milk Board People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) filed a December 2002 lawsuit against the California Milk Advisory Board (CMAB).
PETA’s lawsuit claimed that the CMAB’s “Happy Cows” advertising campaign constituted false advertising. They charged that the idyllic living conditions of the “Happy Cows” were in stark contrast to the large factory farm reality of most dairy cows in California. The suit was thrown out by the California Superior Court in 2002.
PETA appealed the decision to the California Supreme Court, which refused to review the case in 2005. “PETA Sues the California Milk Board for False Advertising,” www.unhappycows.com (accessed Oct.17, 2007) Jan.5, 2004 – Dean Foods Acquires Horizon Organic On January 5, 2004, Dean Foods, the nation’s largest dairy processor and distributor, acquired Horizon Organic, the nation’s leading organic milk and dairy product processor.
- A Brief History of the New Dean Foods Company,” www.deanfoods.com (accessed Oct.22, 2007) 2004 – Milk and Weight Loss Ad Campaign Initiated In 2004, Dairy Management Inc.
- And the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board initiated a nationwide advertising campaign with the slogan “3-A-Day.
- Burn More Fat, Lose Weight.” The advertising campaign ran television, print and internet advertising claiming that the consumption of 3 servings of milk or other dairy products each day could help with weight loss.
United States Department of Agriculture USDA Report to Congress on the National Dairy Promotion and Research Program and the National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Program, USDA/Economic Research Service,” July 1, 2005 2005 – Organic Milk’s Popularity Continues to Grow In 2005, organic milk grew in popularity with a 23 percent increase in consumption over 2004.
- During this same time period, overall milk consumption dropped by 8 percent.
- An Organic Cash Cow,” Nov.9, 2005 2005 – USDA Dietary Guidelines Released In 2005, the United States Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services released an updated “Dietary Guidelines for Americans” that recommended Americans should: “Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.” United States Department of Agriculture ” 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans,”, 2005 Oct.2005 – Physicians Group Files Lawsuit Demanding Lactose Intolerance Warnings on Milk In October 2005, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) filed a class-action lawsuit on behalf of all residents of Washington, DC, against a number of large milk companies demanding lactose intolerance warnings on milk.
PCRM filed the lawsuit “To help raise public awareness about lactose intolerance. on behalf of all residents in Washington, D.C., who may purchase milk without realizing the serious digestive distress it can cause. Filed in the Superior Court of the District of Columbia on October 6, the suit calls for all milk cartons sold in D.C.
to carry labels warning of milk’s possible side effects.” As of Oct.31, 2007, the case is still pending. “PCRM Files Class-Action Lawsuit Against Dairy Industry,” pcrm.org (accessed Oct.17, 2007) 2007 – Japanese Man Creates Beer from Milk For many years, milk consumption in Japan had been on the decline, creating a surplus milk problem in Japan.
The Japanese island of Hokkaido alone had to dispose of nearly 900 tons of surplus milk in a single month. Sensing an opportunity, Hokkaido liquor store owner Chitoshi Nakahara decided to see if he could ferment this excess milk into beer. The experiment worked, and Nakahara began selling “Bilk” in local liquor stores in 2007.
Got Milk? Got Beer!,” reuters.com, Feb.13, 2007 2007 – Milk and Weight-Loss Claims Withdrawn In response to a 2005 complaint from the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine(PCRM), the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) published a letter regarding The National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board (and others) advertisements that claimed drinking milk helps with weight-loss.
The letter stated that the FTC had been “advised by USDA staff that the Dairy Board, the Fluid Milk Board, and other affiliated entities that engage in advertising and promotional activities on behalf of the two boards, have determined that the best course of action at this time is to discontinue all advertising and other marketing activities involving weight loss claims until further research provides stronger, more conclusive evidence of an association between dairy consumption and weight loss.” A lawsuit (still in appeals as of Oct.31, 2007) was also filed by the PCRM against a number of milk retail companies, including Kraft Foods and General Mills, to prevent them from making milk weight-loss claims.
PCRM Complaint, Apr.21, 2005 FTC Response to PCRM, May 3, 2007 PCRM Lawsuit, 2007
Apr.16, 2007 – Nation’s Largest Organic Dairy Violates Organic Rules On April 16, 2007, Aurora Organic Dairy, the largest organic milk producer in the country, and supplier of organic milk to Wal-Mart, Target, Costco, Safeway and many other large stores, received a notice of proposed revocation from the USDA for willful violations of the 1990 Organic Foods Production Act.
The revocation letter from the USDA described 14 violations committed by Aurora Organic Dairy and stated: “Due to the nature and extent of these violations, the NOP proposes to revoke Aurora Organic Dairy’s production and handling certifications under the NOP.” According to the Cornucopia Institute, a farm policy research group, the practices of Aurora are “a ‘horrible aberration’ and that the vast majority of all organic dairy products are produced with high integrity.” USDA Notice of Proposed Revocation, Apr.16, 2007 Cornucopia Institute Lawsuits Announced Against Nation’s Biggest Organic Dairy,” www.cornucopia.org (accessed Oct.23, 2007) Aug.21, 2007 – FTC Affirms the Legality of ‘rBST Free’ Labels on Milk In Feb.2007, the Monsanto Corporation (producers of rBST) filed a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission alleging that a number of milk processors were engaging in “false and deceptive” advertising by labeling their products as being free of the artificial growth hormone rBST and thereby inferring that milk from cows injected with the growth hormone is inferior.
In its response to the compliant filed by the Monsanto Corporation the FTC wrote that its “staff agrees with FDA that food companies may inform consumers in advertising, as in labeling, that they do not use rBST.” Monsanto Complaint to FTC, Feb.2007 FTC Response to Monsanto, Aug.21, 2001 2007-2008 – China’s Tainted Milk Scandal “A Chinese court has condemned two men to death and sentenced a company boss to life for their roles in the production and sale of poisoned milk that killed at least six children and made almost 300,000 sick.
More than 50,000 infants were hospitalised with kidney problems after drinking Sanlu baby formula tainted with melamine, a chemical normally used to make plastics and fertiliser. Investigators said middlemen who bought milk from farmers and sold it on to dairies had watered it down and mixed it with the chemical, which creates the appearance of higher protein levels in quality tests.
Parents had contacted the company to complain as early as the end of 2007. But the scandal was not exposed until September 2008. The scandal led to the screening of more than 20m babies for kidney problems, officials have said. It triggered a spate of product bans or recalls around the world after melamine was detected in exports such as chocolate, yoghurt and sweets.” “China to Execute Two over Poisoned Baby Milk Scandal,” Jan.22, 2009 Jan.8, 2008 – FDA Approves Cloned Milk for Human Consumption The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released its 968 page report “Animal Cloning: A Risk Assessment,” and announced to the public that milk from cloned cows had been approved for human consumption.
In its Jan.15, 2008 press release announcing the report and its conclusions, the FDA wrote that “meat and milk from clones of cattle, swine, and goats, and the offspring of clones from any species traditionally consumed as food, are as safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals.” FDA issues documents on the Safety of Food from Cloned Animals,” www.fda.gov, Jan.15, 2008 Aug.3, 2011 – Market in Venice, CA Raided by Police for Selling Raw Milk; Three Arrested “The owner of a Venice health food market and two other people were arrested on charges related to the allegedly unlawful production and sale of unpasteurized dairy products.
The arrests of James Cecil Stewart, Sharon Ann Palmer and Eugenie Bloch on Wednesday marked the latest effort in a government crackdown on the sale of so-called raw dairy products. Prosecutors in Los Angeles alleged that Stewart, 64, operates a Venice market called Rawesome Foods through which he illegally sold dairy products that did not meet health standards because they were unpasteurized.
- Palmer, 51, has operated Healthy Family Farms in Santa Paula since 2007 without the required licensing for milk production, prosecutors allege.
- She and her company face nine charges related to the production of unpasteurized milk products.
- Bloch, a Healthy Family Farms employee, is charged with three counts of conspiracy.” Los Angeles Times “3 Arrested on Raw-Milk Charges,” latimes.com, Aug.4, 2011 LA County Prosecutor Felony Complaint for Arrest Warrant, June 30, 2011 Mar.2012 – US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Release Report on Dangers of Raw Milk In March, 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released a report titled “Nonpasteurized Dairy Products, Disease Outbreaks, and State Laws – United States, 1993-1996,” which concluded: “Public health officials at all levels should continue to develop innovative methods to educate consumers and caregivers about the dangers associated with nonpasteurized dairy products.
State officials should consider further restricting or prohibiting the sale or distribution of nonpasteurized dairy products within their states. Federal and state regulators should continue to enforce existing regulations to prevent distribution of nonpasteurized dairy products to consumers.
Consumption of nonpasteurized dairy products cannot be considered safe under any circumstances.” United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) “Nonpasteurized Dairy Products, Disease Outbreaks, and State Laws – United States, 1993-1996,” Mar.2012 Feb.24, 2014 – “Got Milk?” Advertising Campaign Dropped, Replaced with “Milk Life” “Got Milk? Not anymore.
The Milk Processor Education Program is sidelining the iconic ad slogan in favor of a new tagline, ‘Milk Life,’ which puts emphasis on milk’s nutritional benefits, including its protein content. The change is part of a national campaign launching Monday that seeks to return the sluggish dairy milk category to growth.
- Protein is ‘really in the news and on consumer’s minds,’ said Julia Kadison, interim CEO of MilkPEP.
- ‘But a lot of people don’t know that milk has protein, so it was very important to make that connection between milk and protein’.
- The nutritional pitch is a very different positioning from the original concept that spurred the creation of ‘Got Milk,’ which was to dramatize situations in which consumers suffer without milk to accompany foods like cake and cookies.” “‘Got Milk’ Dropped as National Milk Industry Changes Tactics,” adage.com, Feb.24, 2014 2015 – US Sales of Dairy Milk Fall as Non-Dairy Milk Sales Rise “Driven by negative health perceptions, reduced retail prices and exports and a growing number of non-dairy alternatives, the US dairy milk market has declined in recent years, as new research from Mintel reveals that sales of dairy milk decreased 7 percent in 2015 ($17.8 billion) and are projected to drop another 11 percent through 2020.
Seen as a better-for-you (BFY) alternative to dairy milk, non-dairy milk offerings continue to see strong growth, with gains of 9 percent in 2015 to reach $1.9 billion.” “US Sales of Dairy Milk Turn Sour as Non-Dairy Milk Sales Grow 9% in 2015,” mintel.com, Apr.20, 2016 June 1, 2016 – Australian Regulators Approve Cold-Pressure Processing as Alternative to Pasteurization “Unpasteurised milk will appear on shop shelves this week, with the food regulator declaring cold pressure as an effective method to kill the harmful bacteria lurking inside.
- Sydney company Made by Cow has obtained the approval of the NSW Food Authority to use cold pressure as an alternative to conventional heat pasteurisation and sell ‘cold-pressed raw milk’.
- ‘Good herd management, hygienic milking techniques and the cold pressure method have meant we can put 100 per cent safe, raw milk onto supermarket shelves,’ said Mr Joye.’The bottles of milk are placed under enormous water pressure, squashed in about 15 per cent, to remove the harmful micro-organisms.’ Selling raw milk for human consumption is illegal in Australia because it contains micro-organisms that can increase the risk of contracting serious illnesses while the product is labelled ‘cold-pressed raw milk’, the NSW Food Authority says it doesn’t recognise it as raw milk because it has undergone ‘high pressure processing’ to eliminate pathogens.
It worked with Made by Cow for more than a year to ensure the product was safe and suitable for human consumption.” “‘Cold-Pressed Raw Milk’ Method Wins Regulatory Approval,” watoday.com.au, June 1, 2016 Sep.25, 2019 – Milk Residue Found in Prehistoric Baby Bottles “Researchers have uncovered three ceramic, spouted vessels believed to be prehistoric baby bottles.
They were found in child graves in Bavaria, two from an Iron Age cemetery dated between 450 and 800 BC and another from a Bronze Age necropolis dated between 800 and 1200 BC, according to a new study, But for the first time, an analysis of three of these vessels revealed residue associated with animal milk, suggesting these bowls acted like baby bottles used during the weaning process.
The residue contained palmitic and stearic fatty acids associated with animal fat, as well as short-chain fatty acids that are rarely detected in old pottery, according to the study. These acids are usually associated with fresh milk fat. Isotopic analysis also revealed that breast milk was potentially mixed with dairy milk.
The researchers believe the animal milk used came from domesticated cattle, goats or sheep. This suggests that the children were being fed animal milk instead of breast milk or being weaned off of breast milk.” Ashley Strickland, “Prehistoric Baby Bottles Still Have Milk Residue Inside,” cnn.com, Sep.25, 2019 Jan.6, 2020 – Two Largest American Dairy Companies File for Bankruptcy “Borden Dairy Co., one of America’s oldest and largest dairy companies, on Monday became the second major milk producer to file for bankruptcy in the last two months.
Tumbling milk consumption combined with the rising price of milk have crippled the dairy industry with debt. Dean Foods, America’s largest milk producer, filed for bankruptcy November 12 The company said it also has been hurt by broader industry trends, including a 6% drop in overall US milk consumption since 2015.
Borden noted that more than 2,700 family dairy farms went out of business last year, and 94,000 have stopped producing milk since 1992.” Chris Isidore, “One of America’s Oldest and Largest Milk Producers Files for Bankruptcy,” cnn.com, Jan.6, 2020 Apr.2020 – Dairy Farmers to Dump up to 3.7 Million Gallons of Milk per Day Due to COVID-19 Pandemic Due to school and restaurant closures during the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic, demand for milk has dropped sharply.
Low demand, combined with processing bottlenecks and grocery store ordering caps, has forced milk farmers to dump milk before it is delivered to processors. Slowing milk production now instead of dumping could result in dairy shortages after the COVID-19 pandemic is over.
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Historical Timeline – Milk – ProCon.org
Who loves peanut butter?
America’s ongoing love of peanut butter – Today, peanut butter is a $2 billion industry, according to research firm Circana. CNBC also cites consumer research indicating that “Peanut butter holds a 90% household penetration rate, comparable to other grocery staples such as breakfast cereal, granola bars, soup and sandwich bread.” Even an area of concern for the industry, peanut allergies, hasn’t done much to curb enthusiasm for the product.
Though nut allergies might pose a challenge in terms of younger generations incorporating peanut butter into their diets (and eventually, their grocery budgets), the world’s largest brands are finding ways around it. “It’s become more of an issue in the last 10 years or so, but the categories continue to grow even as the prevalence of allergy or the reporting of the prevalence of allergy has picked up,” Matt Smith, VP of Equity Research at Stifel Financial Corp, told CNBC.
“So while it’s a threat, it’s certainly not impacting sales.” From wartime sustenance to school lunch staple, peanut butter has shown it has major sticking power. Now that you know a bit more about its global reputation, why not make sure you’re buying the best brand ?
Why is peanut butter not popular in Europe?
This became very popular in the United States because peanuts were widely grown in southern parts of the country. Almost no one grows peanuts in Europe, so they have never been a particularly popular food, and by extension, peanut butter has never been a particularly popular food.
Why do Americans love peanuts so much?
Peanuts are more than just a weird food that the U.S. has grown to adore over years of baseball games with bags of peanuts. With their hearty nutritional and caloric value along with their sweet and delicious taste, peanuts have become the obvious choice of snack and food for many Americans.
Can I eating 100g peanuts a day?
How Many grams of Peanuts Per Day? – The recommended limit for how many peanuts you should eat per day is around 42 grams. This is about 16 peanuts. Eating peanuts in moderation is important as they are high in fat and contain a lot of calories. They are healthy food but should not be eaten in excess.
Is peanut butter OK everyday?
What happens if you eat too much peanut butter? – Eating peanut butter in moderation provides you with wholesome nutrients. However, eating too much can make you gain weight because it is packed with calories and fats. The risk of weight gain increases even more if you consume commercial peanut butter brands, which often have added sugars, oils, and fats.
Is peanut butter a protein or fat?
Peanut butter is rich in heart-healthy fats and is a good source of protein, which can be helpful for vegetarians looking to include more protein in their diets. A 2-tablespoon serving of peanut butter contains up to 8 grams of protein and 2 to 3 grams of fiber.
Who made peanuts Black Man?
The George Washington Carver National Monument in Diamond, Mo., was the first dedicated to a nonpresident. John S. Stewart/AP hide caption toggle caption John S. Stewart/AP Peanuts, He did something, probably a lot of somethings, with peanuts. That’s basically the response I got when I asked people — my friends, folks on Twitter — what they knew about about George Washington Carver.
- The details were hazy, but folks remembered that Carver was really important.
- Oh, and something about Tuskegee! Wait, did he invent the peanut? They half-remembered writing book reports about him in elementary school.
- And then a lot of them sheepishly acknowledged their ignorance.
- In the interest of full disclosure, I should say here that I shared the same vague grasp about Carver’s accomplishments, despite the fact that my high school is named after the guy,
To me, he was the peanut dude. Carver is, in a lot of ways, the Black History Monthiest of all of our Black History Month mainstays. All of the other folks who would be in your black history flashcard set — Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, W.E.B. Du Bois, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman — had discrete achievements that can be easily recalled; they get name-dropped throughout the year.
- But Carver is pretty much a February-only kind of deal.
- There’s no Civil Rights Act he can be credited with helping to formalize, no foundational political theories he espoused, no popular innovation that he developed. And yet.
- In 1941, Time dubbed him the “black Leonardo.” He was a close friend of Henry Ford, a fellow eccentric and inventor.
He was the first nonpresident to have a monument established at his birthplace by the National Park Service. Two decades after his death, the opera singer Marian Anderson christened a nuclear submarine that bore his name. Linda McMurry, author of the biography George Washington Carver: Scientist and Symbol, writes that Carver was ubiquitous in his time, and one of the dozen or so most famous people in America.
“In the last four years of his life, his name was attached to almost everything even remotely connected with blacks, such as a ‘colored theatre’ in Norfolk, a swimming pool in Indianapolis, a settlement house in Pittsburgh, a ‘professional building’ for Negroes in Cincinnati, and a Women’s Christian Temperance Union chapter in Atlanta,” she writes.
“Eventually it became practically impossible to enter a black community anywhere in America without being reminded of the existence of a man named George Washington Carver.” So how is it that Carver, who was once one of the most famous men in America, black or white, has become a guy so few of us really know? Just how did he become such an integral part of the Black History Month pantheon? A Contested Legacy When I started digging around, I found that there’s a whole world of Carver fans, people who see the farm scientist as a paragon of grace.
But even some of them admitted that Carver’s scientific legacy was probably overstated. “There’s a lot of hyperbole around Carver,” Peter Burchard, one of those aforementioned Carver lovers, told me. He’s finishing up a biography on Carver that is due out this summer. Few of Carver’s inventions and ideas ever found wide use, because he had a grudging relationship with documentation and was suspicious that his work might be stolen before he could patent it.
As such, he didn’t pass on that much in the way of research. It’s one of the many ironies of his lasting fame. Even in his day, there were people who wondered if Carver was being lavished with attention that should have been given to some of his contemporaries, like the Howard University biologist Ernest Everett Just.
- In his lifetime, Carver was used as a symbol by a wide range of people with incredibly diverse — and often conflicting — agendas.
- Many black folks cited him as proof of the value of education, while others thought the darker-skinned Carver was a rebuttal to the common claim that prominent, light-skinned blacks owed their intelligence to some putative white heritage.
And many whites pointed to him as proof that blacks could succeed without taking apart the system of Jim Crow. Because Carver frequently talked about God and carefully cultivated an image of humility, members of different faiths claimed him as their own, or at least as a kindred spirit.
- Because he eschewed making political statements, he was a blank screen onto whom anyone could project his own ideologies.
- Paxton Williams, a self-described “Carver-phile,” was the executive director of the George Washington Carver Birthplace Association in Missouri.
- He also wrote and starred in a one-man play about the scientist’s life.
When I emailed Williams to pick his brain, he responded cheerily. “I can generally always find time to talk about my friend, George.”) Williams told me a story about how in the 1920s, Carver excused himself from a dinner hosted by Henry Ford — Carver was to be one of the honored guests — because he didn’t want to upset the whites in attendance.
- He ate his meal outside by himself.
- This was not a rabble-rousing dude.
- But on another, later occasion, Carver, in his late 70s, showed up at a hotel in New York City he had reserved only to be told that there were no available rooms.
- He waited for hours to have his reservation honored, and local figures in the press and the publishing world got word that Carver was being denied lodging.
They leaned on the hotel and demanded that Carver be served. A white editor and friend of Carver’s reserved a room, and was promptly accommodated. But when he tried to give his room to Carver, they were again denied and told that there were no available rooms. Carver wasn’t a political man, but he was useful as a symbol for people with a range of diverse (and often contradicting) goals. AP hide caption toggle caption AP Carver’s Rise Carver was born a slave and was raised by his family’s white masters. He was accepted into one college, but was turned away when he showed up for classes and the school’s officials realized he was black.
- He would eventually become the first black student and the first black faculty member at what is now Iowa State University and went on to become a well-respected botanist.
- In his early career, Carver was overshadowed by Booker T.
- Washington, the famed educator who successfully recruited him to teach at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
Carver was a devotee of Washington’s teachings, and he believed that his agricultural research could help black farmers become more self-reliant. He wanted small Southern farms to become more sustainable and less reliant on cotton — the region’s dominant cash crop — for survival.
The relationship between Washington and Carver was a complicated one, in large part because the botanist was kind of a diva. He was beloved by his students, but he wasn’t a good administrator and he actively avoided the more mundane aspects of teaching. He regularly threatened to resign from Tuskegee, even though Washington extended him all kinds of privileges other faculty members didn’t enjoy, and regularly touted the young scientist’s intellect.
“Washington’s attitude was really, ‘We don’t give you a lot of orders, but when we give them to you, you have to do it,’ ” Burchard said. “Carver had a tremendous amount of respect for, but it was a little like a little kid who had a great dad who never said ‘I love you.’ ” When Washington died, Carver was distraught.
But his own profile began to rise quickly. His research had given him contacts in the federal government, which gave him more clout. He was named a fellow of the Royal Society of the Arts, (McMurry writes that it was never exactly clear who selected him for that honor.) That fellowship boosted his reputation, and each new honor and award begat more honors still.
And despite his image as a paragon of humility, Carver ran with it. He actively cultivated his newfound fame. He spent as much time at speaking engagements on other campuses as he did at Tuskegee. It wasn’t too long after that that the peanut folks came calling.
The Peanut Man When World War I began and there were shortages of crops and food, Carver’s research into alternative uses for sweet potatoes gained a lot of attention from Washington, although they didn’t amount to much by the time the war ended. And the peanut thing? Carver did come up with a whole lot of uses for the peanut, but few of them became widely used.
Much of his reputation came after he was adopted as a spokesman of sorts by the United Peanut Association of America — although not without some initial internal debate. (He may have been famous, but he was still black.) “Despite later claims that he almost singlehandedly transformed the peanut from an inconsequential crop to a multimillion dollar enterprise, a sizable, well-organized, and increasingly powerful peanut business existed even before Carver became its symbol,” the biographer McMurry wrote.
- Indeed, if the sweet potato industry had been as well organized Carver might have never become the Peanut Man.” In 1921, he went to D.C.
- On the association’s behalf to lobby for a tariff on foreign peanuts.
- He was supposed to give a brief talk in which he showed off some alternative peanut food products, some of which he ate while he addressed the lawmakers.
(One congressman snarkily asked if Carver would like some watermelon to go along with his food, but Carver didn’t take the bait, telling him that watermelon was fine, but it was a dessert food.) The same charm Carver used to win over his Tuskegee students dazzled members of Congress so much that they kept extending his allotted speaking time.
- Your time is unlimited,” the rapt committee chairperson told him.
- It’s all the more impressive considering Carver’s squeaky and unimposing voice,) When he was done with his presentation, onlookers broke out into applause.
- The tariff was eventually passed.
- That incident, improbably, turned Carver into a major national celebrity.
The press began to lay it on thick with the mythmaking (Carver turns down lucrative job offer from Thomas Edison!) and Carver didn’t try terribly hard to correct the record on a lot of their exaggerations about him. “The exotic qualities of his life were highlighted and often distorted, and what emerged was an image of Carver singlehandedly remaking the South,” McMurry wrote.
- His fame meant he was swamped with proposals to develop this or that food-based product, but Carver, never a stickler for details, didn’t want to be bogged down with the logistics of manufacturing.
- So a lot of his business ideas — for paints and dyes and adhesives made from sweet potatoes, peanuts and the like — either dried up or limped along before dying quietly.
Carver In Context As Carver became increasingly ill with age, Henry Ford had an elevator built in Carver’s home to make it easier for him to move around. AP hide caption toggle caption AP I wondered aloud to a friend, Jelani Cobb, a historian at the University of Connecticut and a contributor to the New Yorker, whether Carver’s historical import had been overstated.
- Why does Carver, whose work has little obvious contemporary resonance, matter so much? He seemed annoyed with the premise of the question.
- Carver was important partly because of what he did and the context in which he did it,” Cobb told me.
- It’s pretty hard to argue with that.
- Here’s Carver’s backdrop: the interim between the end of slavery and the civil rights movement, a stagnant time for black rights.
It was during this span that Jim Crow crystallized, when the Plessy decision came down, when Wilmington, N.C., saw the only successful political coup in American history, when the terrorist Ku Klux Klan had serious mainstream influence and the federal anti-lynching legislation meant to rein the Klan in was a nonstarter in Congress.
- Let’s think about the degree of difficulty of his trajectory for a second.
- George Washington Carver, born a slave in Missouri and who became an eccentric agricultural scientist, was the most prominent African-American in the United States following a speech he gave to a congressional committee about tariff protections for peanuts — and all this at a time when blacks were all but absent from mainstream American life.
When you consider this, it makes sense that Carver’s significance is so hard to translate into contemporary life. His celebrity was so peculiar, so specific to his moment. After Carver died in 1943, he was compared to his mentor, Booker T. Washington, says Williams.
It was not meant favorably. Carver was seen as an accommodationist. And his disinterest in political activism didn’t age very well. “He was not the kind of person to stand up and say, ‘I want my rights! You’ve done me wrong!’ ” Williams said. It’s important to consider, again, that he wasn’t alive for most of the moments that became the signposts of the civil rights movement.
He died years before the integration of the military, a decade before the first sit-ins and boycotts and marches. As the civil rights movement increasingly came to define black American life, he became harder to neatly posit in the trajectory of black social progress, even as his name continued to adorn schools and libraries and kids dutifully wrote book reports about him.
When folks criticize and lampoon Black History Month, it isn’t the history of black folks they’re making fun of. It’s a side-eye at the idea that the history of African-Americans — of any people, really — fits neatly into a month and can be reduced to the kind of trivia that might be stamped onto the underside of a bottlecap.
These history and heritage months can feel overly precious, too pat. But ideally, they should give us the chance to revisit and reconsider the folks who were mostly quiet on the most pressing issues of their days. All of which makes Carver, odd as it may seem, a pretty strong argument for Black History Month.
The folks I asked about Carver kept trying to remember the important things he did with peanuts. But while the peanut stuff is the main bullet point, it only sort of matters. It’s the messier details that make someone like Carver worth considering. He was a scientist who attended white schools who was friends with some of the most powerful men in America.
He wasn’t politically inclined, but he was one of America’s most famous people at a time when simply being black in public life was necessarily a political act. And somewhat bizarrely, his race both hindered him and helped make him enormously famous. “Perhaps the greatest paradox was that Carver became famous as a scientist because he was black, even though his blackness diverted him from becoming a real scientist,” McMurry wrote.
- If he had been white, he probably would have made significant contributions in mycology or hybridization and died in obscurity.
- Because he was black, he died famous, without making any significant scientific advances.” Those nebulous advances are the ones folks strain to remember, and everyone feels a kind of guilt for not remembering the specifics around Carver’s work with peanuts.
But that stuff doesn’t matter. So let’s just go ahead and forget the peanuts.
Who was the famous black peanut farmer?
How did George Washington Carver change the world? – George Washington Carver, (born 1861?, near Diamond Grove, Missouri, U.S.—died January 5, 1943, Tuskegee, Alabama), American agricultural chemist, agronomist, and experimenter whose development of new products derived from peanuts (groundnuts), sweet potatoes, and soybeans helped revolutionize the agricultural economy of the South,
For most of his career he taught and conducted research at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (now Tuskegee University ) in Tuskegee, Alabama. Carver was born into slavery, the son of an enslaved woman named Mary, owned by Moses Carver. During the American Civil War, the Carver farm was raided, and infant George and his mother were kidnapped and taken to Arkansas to be sold.
Moses Carver was eventually able to track down young George but was unable to find Mary. Frail and sick, the motherless child was returned to his master’s plantation and nursed back to health. With the complete abolition of slavery in the United States in 1865, George was no longer an enslaved child. Britannica Quiz Faces of Science By both books and experience, George acquired a fragmentary education while doing whatever work came to hand in order to subsist. He supported himself by varied occupations that included general household worker, hotel cook, laundryman, farm labourer, and homesteader.
In his late 20s he managed to obtain a high-school education in Minneapolis, Kansas, while working as a farmhand. After a university in Kansas refused to admit him because he was Black, Carver matriculated at Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa, where he studied piano and art, subsequently transferring to Iowa State Agricultural College (later Iowa State University ), where he received a bachelor’s degree in agricultural science in 1894 and a master of science degree in 1896.
Carver left Iowa for Alabama in the fall of 1896 to direct the newly organized department of agriculture at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, a school headed by noted African American educator Booker T. Washington, At Tuskegee, Washington was trying to improve the lot of African Americans through education and the acquisition of useful skills rather than through political agitation; he stressed conciliation, compromise, and economic development as the paths for Black advancement in American society.
- Despite many offers elsewhere, Carver would remain at Tuskegee for the rest of his life.
- After becoming the institute’s director of agricultural research in 1896, Carver devoted his time to research projects aimed at helping Southern agriculture, demonstrating ways in which farmers could improve their economic situation.
He conducted experiments in soil management and crop production and directed an experimental farm. At this time agriculture in the Deep South was in steep decline because the unremitting single-crop cultivation of cotton had left the soil of many fields exhausted and worthless, and erosion had then taken its toll on areas that could no longer sustain any plant cover.
As a remedy, Carver urged Southern farmers to plant peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea ) and soybeans ( Glycine max ). As members of the legume family ( Fabaceae ), these plants could restore nitrogen to the soil while also providing the protein so badly needed in the diet of many Southerners. Carver found that Alabama’s soils were particularly well-suited to growing peanuts and sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas ), but when the state’s farmers began cultivating these crops instead of cotton, they found little demand for them on the market.
In response to this problem, Carver set about enlarging the commercial possibilities of the peanut and sweet potato through a long and ingenious program of laboratory research. He ultimately developed 300 derivative products from peanuts—among them milk, flour, ink, dyes, plastics, wood stains, soap, linoleum, medicinal oils, and cosmetics —and 118 from sweet potatoes, including flour, vinegar, molasses, ink, a synthetic rubber, and postage stamp glue.
- In 1914, at a time when the boll weevil had almost ruined cotton growers, Carver revealed his experiments to the public, and increasing numbers of the South’s farmers began to turn to peanuts, sweet potatoes, and their derivatives for income.
- Much exhausted land was renewed, and the South became a major new supplier of agricultural products.
When Carver arrived at Tuskegee in 1896, the peanut had not even been recognized as a crop, but within the next half century it became one of the six leading crops throughout the United States and, in the South, the second cash crop (after cotton) by 1940. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now Among Carver’s many honours were his election to Britain’s Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce (London) in 1916 and his receipt of the Spingarn Medal in 1923.
- Late in his career he declined an invitation to work for Thomas Edison at a salary of more than $100,000 a year.U.S.
- Presidents Calvin Coolidge and Franklin D.
- Roosevelt visited him, and his friends included Henry Ford and Mahatma Gandhi,
- Foreign governments requested his counsel on agricultural matters: Joseph Stalin, for example, in 1931 invited him to superintend cotton plantations in southern Russia and to make a tour of the Soviet Union, but Carver refused.
In 1940 Carver donated his life savings to the establishment of the Carver Research Foundation at Tuskegee for continuing research in agriculture. During World War II he worked to replace the textile dyes formerly imported from Europe, and in all he produced dyes of 500 different shades.
- Many scientists thought of Carver more as a concoctionist than as a contributor to scientific knowledge.
- Many of his fellow African Americans were critical of what they regarded as his subservience.
- Certainly, this small, mild, soft-spoken, innately modest man, eccentric in dress and mannerism, seemed unbelievably heedless of the conventional pleasures and rewards of this life.
But these qualities endeared Carver to many whites, who were almost invariably charmed by his humble demeanour and his quiet work in self-imposed segregation at Tuskegee. As a result of his accommodation to the mores of the South, whites came to regard him with a sort of patronizing adulation,
- Carver thus, for much of white America, increasingly came to stand as a kind of saintly and comfortable symbol of the intellectual achievements of African Americans.
- Carver was evidently uninterested in the role his image played in the racial politics of the time.
- His great desire in later life was simply to serve humanity, and his work, which began for the sake of the poorest of the Black sharecroppers, paved the way for a better life for the entire South.
His efforts brought about a significant advance in agricultural training in an era when agriculture was the largest single occupation of Americans, and he extended Tuskegee’s influence throughout the South by encouraging improved farm methods, crop diversification, and soil conservation.
Who was the famous black botanist?
Black History Month: Honoring Black Botanists Honoring Black Botanists In honor of their amazing and important scientific discoveries and related work that has contributed to the world’s collective knowledge base in regard to insects, nature, and the environment, Metroparks is spotlighting exceptional black scientists through informational blog entries this February.
George Washington Carver (1864-1943), was a botanist, artist, educator, agricultural scientist, inventor and an environmentalist who was very forward thinking in terms of land sustainability. Also known as “the peanut man,” Carver worked diligently on agricultural projects that involved peanuts. He knew that some plants needed nitrogen added to soil as a fertilizer; however, he discovered that legumes like peanuts could produce their own nitrogen due to special bacteria residing in their roots.
This led to the realization that peanut plants could restore nutrients to depleted soil, as well as provide people a protein-rich food. Carver was the first black man in the U.S. to receive formal training in modern agricultural methods and worked to revolutionize crop rotation methods and yield success to share with farmers.
He enrolled in the botany program at Iowa State Agricultural College after a love of drawing plants, and then earned a graduate degree there studying plant pathology. After graduation, Carver was hired to run the agricultural department at the Tuskegee Institute as a teacher and researcher. Teaching there for 47 years, more time went into his groundbreaking work of developing uses for new types of crops and the diversification of crop use.
Even President Theodore Roosevelt often sought his advice on agricultural matters! Carver’s accomplishments inspired many books, two of which are: by Aliki and by Susan Grigsby. Dr. Marie Clark Taylor (1911-1990) was described by her colleague, Margaret Collins, as a “powerhouse who worked tirelessly to improve teacher training in the sciences.” During her career, Taylor, (initially a high school teacher), facilitated many teacher training workshops that focused on new and innovative methods that utilized microscopes as part of hands-on experiences in botany.
- It was the field of botany that interested Dr.
- Taylor the most, as much of her research was focused on studying the influence of light on plant growth.
- As the first African-American woman ever to receive a PhD in botany, Taylor moved toward becoming an assistant professor in the botany department at Howard University and then later, the department chair.
On campus, she facilitated the design and construction of an important botanical greenhouse lab. Edmond Albius (1829-1880) at age 12 invented a technique for hand-pollinating vanilla orchids quickly, revolutionizing the cultivation of vanilla. Since vanilla orchid blossoms can only be naturally pollinated by small bee species in their native range, there was a need for an efficient artificial pollination technique in other locations that it was being grown for profit.
- Albius simply used a thin blade of grass and his thumbs to transfer the pollen from the anther over the flower’s stigma for rapid success.
- At that point in time, there already was an established way of pollination by a botany professor in Belgium, but that method proved very slow and unprofitable.
- Today, Albius’s method is still used, as nearly all vanilla orchids are hand-pollinated.
Colonists in Madagascar used his technique to cultivate vanilla and today, that country still remains the main producer of vanilla, a highly sought after spice used for flavoring food and drink. : Black History Month: Honoring Black Botanists
Who is Dr Carver in black history?
Black History Month – George Washington Carver The desire to learn can be a driving force. In the case of George Washington Carver, it was the pursuit of knowledge that helped him achieve greatness. Born as a slave around 1864, Carver died a prominent inventor, botanist and scientist.