When To Use A Colon? - CLT Livre

When To Use A Colon?

When To Use A Colon

When should I use a colon example?

Usage #1: – We can use a colon to introduce a list at the end of a complete sentence, For example, “We lived in countries all over the world: Iraq, Japan, and Peru.” Here, we’re renaming the countries that have been lived in by listing them individually.

Do I use a colon when I list?

Introducing a Series or List – Use a colon with the phrases as follows and the following, To make a cake you need the following ingredients: butter, sugar, eggs, milk, flour, leavener, and salt. Combine the ingredients as follows: first, cream the butter with the sugar; second, add the eggs and milk; third, add the flour, leavener, and salt.

How do you use a colon in dialogue?

Dialogue – Commas and colons can both be used after dialogue is introduced. However, colons are utilized when the quoted material is formally introduced and is not integrated as part of the sentence. Other times, a comma or colon is not necessary if the quoted material is a continuation of the sentence.

Where should a colon not be used?

Contents | Index | Previous | Next 1. Do not use a colon in a complete sentence after phrases such as “such as,” “including,” and “for example.” Because phrases like these already indicate to the reader that a list of examples will follow, there is no need to introduce them with a colon, which would merely be redundant.

Incorrect: She had all the skills of a great litigator, such as: writing ability, perseverance, persuasiveness, and obsessive attention to detail. Correct: She had all the skills of a great litigator, such as writing ability, perseverance, persuasiveness, and obsessive attention to detail.2. Do not use a colon after a preposition (such as “in”), or a verb, that introduces a list.

Incorrect: The new law student excelled in: Criminal Law, Legal Writing, and Torts. Correct: The new law student excelled in Criminal Law, Legal Writing, and Torts. Incorrect: The litigation tactics most disliked by the judge are: discriminatory use of peremptory challenges, indiscriminate use of document requests during discovery, and the introduction of frivolous motions as delaying tactics.

  1. Correct: The litigation tactics most disliked by the judge are discriminatory use of peremptory challenges, indiscriminate use of document requests during discovery, and the introduction of frivolous motions as delaying tactics.3.
  2. Do use a colon to introduce a list, or provide an explanation, provided that its use is not contrary to rules 1 and 2 above.

For example: Correct Use to Introduce a List: The store carried all the items the new judge needed: gavels, judicial robes, case reporters, and computers. Correct Use as an Explanatory Tool: The restaurant served the type of food most preferred by lawyers: red meat.4.

  • Do use a colon when restating an idea.
  • If the material following the colon constitutes a full sentence, capitalize the first word.
  • If the material following the colon is a dependent clause or phrase, do not capitalize the first word.
  • Correct: The writing was brilliant: It was clear, concise, and analytically correct.

Incorrect: The writing was brilliant: clear, concise, and analytically correct. Cross Reference: Semicolons to your browser to complete the exercise.

What is the English colon rule?

The colon ( : ) seems to bewilder many people, though it’s really rather easy to use correctly, since it has only one major use. But first please note the following: the colon is never preceded by a white space; it is always followed by a single white space in normal use, and it is never, never, never followed by a hyphen or a dash — in spite of what you might have been taught in school.

  • One of the commonest of all punctuation mistakes is following a colon with a completely pointless hyphen,
  • The colon is used to indicate that what follows it is an explanation or elaboration of what precedes it.
  • That is, having introduced some topic in more general terms, you can use a colon and go on to explain that same topic in more specific terms.

Schematically: More general: more specific A colon is nearly always preceded by a complete sentence; what follows the colon may or may not be a complete sentence, and it may be a mere list or even a single word. A colon is not normally followed by a capital letter in British usage, though American usage often prefers to use a capital.

Here are some examples: Africa is facing a terrifying problem: perpetual drought. The situation is clear: if you have unprotected sex with a stranger, you risk AIDS. She was sure of one thing: she was not going to be a housewife. Mae West had one golden rule for handling men: “Tell the pretty ones they’re smart and tell the smart ones they’re pretty.” Several friends have provided me with inspiration: Tim, Ian and, above all, Larry.

We found the place easily: your directions were perfect. I propose the creation of a new post: School Executive Officer. Very occasionally, the colon construction is turned round, with the specifics coming first and the general summary afterward: Saussure, Sapir, Bloomfield, Chomsky: all these have revolutionized linguistics in one way or another.

Like all inverted constructions, this one should be used sparingly. While you’re studying these examples, notice again that the colon is never preceded by a white space and never followed by anything except a single white space. You should not use a colon, or any other mark, at the end of a heading which introduces a new section of a document: look at the chapter headings and section headings in the present document.

It is, however, usual to use a colon after a word, phrase or sentence in the middle of a text which introduces some following material which is set off in the middle of the page. There are three consecutive examples of this just above, in the second, third and fourth paragraphs of this section.

The colon has a few minor uses. First, when you cite the name of a book which has both a title and a subtitle, you should separate the two with a colon: I recommend Chinnery’s book Oak Furniture: the British Tradition, You should do this even though no colon may appear on the cover or the title page of the book itself.

Second, the colon is used in citing passages from the Bible: The story of Menahem is found in II Kings 15:14–22. Observe that, exceptionally, the colon is not followed by a white space in Biblical references. Third, the colon may be used in writing ratios: Among students of French, women outnumber men by more than 4:1.

In formal writing, however, it is usually preferable to write out ratios in words: Among students of French, women outnumber men by more than four to one. Fourth, in American usage, a colon is used to separate the hours from the minutes in giving a time of day: 2:10, 11:30 (A). British Eng lish uses a full stop for this purpose: 2.10, 11.30,

Finally, the colon is used in formal letters and in citing references to published work, Copyright © Larry Trask, 1997 Maintained by the Department of Informatics, University of Sussex

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What is the difference between a colon and a semicolon examples?

⚡ Quick summary – Both the colon and the semicolon are punctuation marks often used to connect related sentences. In general, a colon is typically used to introduce a sentence that clarifies, explains, or elaborates on the sentence that came before it.

A semicolon, on the other hand, is typically used to simply connect two related sentences of equal importance. Besides this confusing overlap, colons and semicolons also have some other unique uses, such as the colon’s presence in times and ratios. The colon and semicolon are two punctuation marks with similar names that often cause a lot of confusion.

Because they aren’t used as often as some other punctuation marks, it can be hard to know when you should use one or the other. In this article, we will explain what colons and semicolons are and how they are used, give tips on how to remember the difference between them, and provide examples that show the different ways that we use them.

When should you use a semicolon examples?

1 Use semicolons to connect related independent clauses – You can use a semicolon to join two closely related independent clauses. Let’s put that another way. The group of words that comes before the semicolon should form a complete sentence, the group of words that comes after the semicolon should form a complete sentence, and the two sentences should share a close, logical connection: I ordered a cheeseburger for lunch; life’s too short for counting calories.

  1. Martha has gone to the library; her sister has gone to play soccer.
  2. The examples above are each made up of two complete, grammatically correct sentences glued together.
  3. That’s exactly why you can’t substitute a comma for a semicolon.
  4. Using a comma instead of a semicolon in the sentences above would result in a comma splice,

And there’s nothing as painful as a comma splice.

When should you not use a semicolon?

Semicolons should not be used between a dependent clause and an independent clause.

What are the rules for semicolons?

Rule – Use a semicolon between independent clauses which are linked in meaning with a transitional word. This rule means that a writer may use semicolons between two complete sentences that are joined by transition words like however, meanwhile, next, similarly, therefore, for example, in addition, in conclusion, etc. This transitional word is often followed by a comma.

Do you use a semicolon before however?

Semicolons indicate a stronger or more important break in the flow of words than the break indicated by a comma. Use a semicolon in compound sentences that are NOT linked by a conjunction (such as “and,” “but,” “or,” “nor,” and “yet”). Place a semicolon before conjunctive adverbs (such as “however,” “hence,” “therefore,” “nevertheless,” and “consequently”) in most complex sentences containing two or more clauses.

  1. When a sentence contains items in a series, you may use a semicolon between the items if one or more of the items contains commas.1.
  2. Using Semicolons in Compound Sentences without Conjunctions When clauses in a sentence are closely related in meaning, a semicolon is an appropriate dividing punctuation mark.

Note that the words “and,” “but,” “or,” and “nor” do not follow semicolons. It was difficult to reproduce the experiment; the material Smith and Jones used was not widely available. Of the 13 samples, only one did not degrade; others deteriorated an average of 8%.2.

Using Semicolons with Conjunctive Adverbs “Yet” and “so” are usually preceded by commas in a complex sentence. But use a semicolon before such conjunctive adverbs as “then,” “however,” “thus,” “therefore,” “hence,” “accordingly,” “moreover,” “nevertheless,” “consequently,” “besides,” “indeed,” and “subsequently”; place a comma after the adverb.

The contractor’s representative was out, so I left a message. We used the Schartz-Metterklume method in the experiment; however, the problems with this method are well known. Energy requirements are often expressed in quads, or quadrillion Btu; therefore, this report describes the number of quads supplied annually by each option.

Use a semicolon before “i.e.” (“that is”) and “e.g.” (“for example”) and a comma after them when a clause (with a subject and verb) follows them; use a comma when a phrase or list follows.3. Using Semicolons in a Series When items in a series contain internal punctuation (e.g., commas) or are very long, you can separate them with semicolons.

In those cases, a conjunction can follow the last semicolon. The contaminants in the sample were TCE, 150 ppb; toluene, 220 ppb; and benzene, 265 ppb. Promising new technologies demonstrated at the exposition included advanced wind turbines; polycrystalline, thick-film, and thin-film solar cells; fast-growing energy crops; and fuel cells.

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What is an example of a semicolon?

By Liz Delf, Senior Lecturer of English – You’ve seen it before: that “winking” punctuation of a dot and a comma. But how exactly do you use a semicolon? The good news: there are exactly two answers to this question. That’s it! The main way a semicolon is used is to connect two independent clauses that are related to each other.

  • Independent clause” is grammar-speak for complete sentence.
  • So, if you have two complete sentences—long or short—you can choose to connect them with a semicolon.
  • You should be able to replace the semicolon with a period and it would still make sense.
  • Here’s an example: “The pancakes were delicious; they were fluffy and sweet.” You can see that each half of this sentence—on either side of the semicolon—could stand alone as a complete sentence.

I could replace the semicolon with a period, and it would still make perfect sense. Note that there is no coordinating conjunction—such as for, and, but, etc.—or other linking phrase. Just the semicolon alone is enough to connect the sentences. So why use a semicolon this way? Well, it indicates that these two ideas are linked.

  1. It acts as a plus sign, showing that you are adding more information onto the previous idea.
  2. You might be wondering, couldn’t I do this same thing with a comma ? Well, not exactly like this.
  3. If we tried to re-write our pancake example with a comma alone, it wouldn’t work: “The pancakes were delicious, they were fluffy and sweet.” A comma alone isn’t strong enough to connect the sentences.

That’s called a comma splice, which we’ll discuss in a future video. If you have two sentences that are related to each other, you CAN connect them with a comma AND a coordinating conjunction—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so—but not a comma alone. The other way to use semicolons is between items in a complex list, especially if any item on the list contains its own commas.

  1. In a simple list, we separate items with commas.
  2. For example, “I need to go to the store for bread, milk, and eggs.” However, if an item on the list contains commas within it, then just using commas to also separate the items on the list would be confusing: “Today I need to clean the house, go to the store for bread, milk, and eggs, and finish my history paper.” Instead, we separate the items in this list with semicolons to be clearer.

Some writers find this use of the semicolon a little clunky, and they would look for a different way to write the sentence. That’s true of semicolons in general: some writers find them overly formal, or they just don’t like them! That’s ok. You can be a good writer and never use a semicolon, but it’s worth knowing how so that you can make that choice for yourself.

Can colons be used for quotes?

A colon can also be used to introduce a quotation (usually a long prose passage) if it is preceded by a complete sentence (independent clause).

Is colon used in direct speech?

The job of the colon is simple: to introduce.1. Use a colon to introduce a list :

There are three countries in North America: Mexico, the USA and Canada. We can see many things in the sky at night: the moon, stars, planets, comets, planes and even satellites.

2. Actually, you can use a colon to introduce a single item, especially when you want to emphasize that item:

We were all waiting for the hero of the evening: John. There is one thing that he will not accept: stupidity. The job of the colon is simple: to introduce.

3. Use a colon to introduce direct speech or a quotation :

He stood up and said loudly: “Ladies and Gentlemen, please be seated.” John whispered in my ear: “Have you seen Andrea?” As Confucius once wrote: “When words lose their meaning, people lose their freedom.”

4. Use a colon to introduce an explanation :

We had to cancel the party: too many people were sick. There is no need to rush: the meeting will be starting one hour late.

5. Use a colon to introduce examples, as shown above. For example, item 1 above reads “Use a colon to introduce a list” and ends with a colon followed by two example sentences. Next: Hyphen EnglishClub : Learn English : Writing : Punctuation : Colon

Can I use a colon after a verb?

The Colon – TIP Sheets – Butte College TIP SheetTHE COLON The colon is used primarily to introduce or call attention to the words that follow it. The colon is also used between clauses when the second clause summarizes or explains the first, or in certain situations to indicate a separation between specific elements.1.

  • List: The winning numbers are as follows: four, five, nine, and eleven.
  • Appositive: Every day my mother packed my lunch: a peanut butter sandwich, two cookies, and an apple.
  • Quotation: Consider carefully the words of a Zen proverb: “When the mind is ready, a teacher appears.”

Note: A colon is like a stop in function and therefore can be used only at the end of an independent clause (a complete statement).

2. Use a colon between independent clauses if the second clause summarizes, explains, or gives an example for the first clause. After the service, the women performed a graceful task: they lit the tiny candles one by one. Our committee received the board’s recommendation: Finalize the budget tonight!

Note: When an independent clause follows a colon, the second clause may begin with either a lowercase or a capital letter.

3. Use a colon to separate certain elements, such as after the salutation in a formal letter, between hours and minutes to indicate time, between numbers to show proportions, between a title and subtitle, and between the city and the publisher and date in bibliographic entries. Dear Sir: 6:30 A.M.

  1. The ratio of students to teachers was 22:1.
  2. Grammar and Style: A Handbook on College Writing
  3. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988
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Avoid common errors using the colon. A colon must be preceded by a full independent clause. Therefore avoid using it between a verb and its object or complement, between a preposition and its object, and after such as, including, or for example. For example, the following uses of the colon are incorrect : Some of the colors used in the flags are: red, orange, blue, and black. (Incorrect)The homework consisted of: four pages of dictionary definitions. (Incorrect) He loves spring flowers such as: the daffodil, daisy, and sunflower. (Incorrect)

The Colon – TIP Sheets – Butte College

What word does a colon replace?

When not to use a colon – A colon should not separate a noun from its verb, a verb from its object or subject complement, a preposition from its object, or a subject from its predicate. To illustrate, here is one of our sentences from above rewritten incorrectly.

  1. The three types of muscle in the body are: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal.
  2. Putting the colon here separates the verb “are” from its subject complements (“cardiac,” “smooth,” and “skeletal”).
  3. When I graduate, I want to go to: Rome, Israel, and Egypt.
  4. In this sentence, the colon separates the preposition “to” from its objects (“Rome,” “Israel,” and “Egypt”).

To write this sentence correctly, the colon should be removed. When I graduate, I want to go to Rome, Israel, and Egypt. Lastly, colons should not be used after “including,” “especially,” or other similar phrases. As we explained earlier, a colon essentially replaces these words, so using them before one would be redundant.

Can you leave without a colon?

First, we have to define the two intestines in our bodies. The large intestine, also known as the colon or large bowel spans most of the length and width of the abdomen in an upside-down U shape. We categorize the colon in five distinct parts. From right to left, it is composed of the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon.

The colon removes and absorbs water, is the catalyst for the fermentation of remining material and expels solid matter in the form of feces into the rectum for removal from the body. The small intestine or small bowel, on the other hand, has three parts – the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The small intestine absorbs vitamins and nutrients from the food and drink we consume.

Interesting Fact: Which organ is longer? Contrary to how the terminology makes it seem – small and large – the small intestine is longer (22 feet) and the large intestine shorter (5 feet). Small and large actually refers to the diameter of the two organs.

So – Do You Need Your Large Intestine? The answer to the first question, believe it or not is – YES! You can live without a large intestine – something that comes as a shock to many people. The large intestine or colon has one primary role, water and electrolyte absorption to concentrate the stool. It plays little role in metabolism and people can live full lives without their large intestine.

There are several diseases that may require removal of the entire large intestine:

Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s colitis and Familial polyposis

are the most common indications for a total proctocolectomy (removing the colon and rectum). When the anus is not involved with disease and does not need to be removed, the small intestine can be reconstructed to work like the rectum (a J-pouch) which is connected to the anus to maintain continence.

After J-pouch surgery, since the stool in the small intestine is more liquid, patients will have very watery bowel movements postop until the pouch adapts and learns to absorb fluid like the colon once did. While less commonly employed than in years past, significant disease that inhibits the natural elimination of stool may require a colostomy – where a stoma is created in the abdominal wall to allow for the elimination of waste from the large intestine.

You Cannot, Live Without Your Small Intestine. The small intestine cannot be completely removed. Some patients may undergo surgery to remove some of their small bowel. These can be done for several reasons:

A malabsorptive bariatric surgery such as gastric bypass to address morbid obesity, by limiting the calories absorbed by the small intestine Diseases requiring extensive small bowel resection such as Crohn’s, traumatic injury, cancer and intestinal blockages

Patients undergoing extensive small bowel resection may be left with short bowel. Short bowel syndrome can happen if the majority of one’s small intestine is removed, taking one from, say, 22 feet of small intestine, down to 4 feet. Patients with short bowel syndrome will most often require supplemental fluid and sometimes intravenous nutrition because the small intestine plays a profound role in absorption of nutrients and electrolytes.

What is an example of a colon title?

How to Use a Colon Punctuation Mark – Let’s look at the mechanical uses of the colon. There are six major non-sentence uses:

  1. Time
  2. Titles
  3. Ratios
  4. Periodical citations
  5. Bible verses
  6. Correspondence

We’ve already discussed how to use a colon to write times in American English. Sometimes book, play, movie, or other media titles include colons to separate the main part of the title from the subtitle. Here are some examples:

  • On Fire: The Case for a Green New Deal by Naomi Klein
  • 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • Star Wars: The Old Republic (video game)

Ratios are also written with colons. For example, you might tell someone to make a vinaigrette with a 3:1 oil to vinegar recipe. When you cite a periodical or journal, use a colon between the volume and the page numbers, like this: American Journal of Archaeology 126: 3–17.

  • To Whom It May Concern:
  • Dear Ms. Potts:
  • PS: I enjoyed the coffee you sent. Thanks!
  • ATTN: Human Resources